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Germany is located in Central Europe and it shares borders with Denmark in the North, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France in the West, Austria and Switzerland in the South and Poland and the Czech Republic in the East. The North Sea and the Baltic Sea represent additional National Borders in the North. The official language of Germany is German and Berlin is the capital. The climate is quite pleasant with almost all variety of seasonal flavors as temperate, marine, cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers, occasional warm, tropical foehn wind and high relative humidity.
Jena is a town in central Germany on the River Saale, with a population of 102,442 inhabitants as of 31 December, 2004. It is the third largest town in the state of Thuringia. It was first mentioned in an 1182 document and according to some historian, it was related to a last settlement, known as Jani. In the 11th century, Jena was under control of the lords of Lobdeburg. In the next century, it developed in a sovereign town with laws and magistrates of its own. Its economy was supported by wine production.
In 1945, towards the end of World War II, Jena was bombed by the American and British allies. 153 people were killed and most of the medieval town centre was damaged. Part of the State of Thuringia from its foundation in 1920 was integrated in the German Democratic Republic in 1949. From 1990, Jena was a part of the Free State of Thuringia in the united Federal Republic of Germany.
Today Jena is a manufacturing city, specializing in precision machinery, pharmaceuticals, optics and photographic equipment, and is home to the famous Zeiss optics plant. In 1926 the world's first modern planetarium was built by the Zeiss Company in the Damenviertel district. It can also be considered as the preeminent, historical and potential tourism destination that enjoys a very positive reputation with worldwide travelers to become one of the most visited places.

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